Titulature of the Kara-Khitay rulers in Muslim sources of the 12th–15th centuries

русская версия

DOI https://doi.org/10.31696/2618-7043-2023-6-3-4-477-492
Affiliation: Институт востоковедения РАН
senior researcher
Sections HISTORY OF THE EAST. General history
Pages 477 - 492

The power of the Qara-Khitay for a relatively short period of time, by historical standards, from the second quarter of the 12th to the beginning of the 13th centuries. had a huge impact on the political development of eastern Desht-i Qipchak, as well as on the settled Muslim regions of Transoxiana and Khorasan. The rulers of the Qara-Khitay actively intervened in the struggle for the “Seljuk inheritance” after the death of Sultan Sanjar in 1157 with the Khorezmshahs of the Anushteginid dynasty and the sultans of Gur, to subordinate to their power the regional rulers of Transoxiana, as well as individual nomadic Turkic tribes in these lands — for example, the Qarluks. In this regard, the history of the Qara-Khitay state was reflected in numerous Muslim historical and geographical writings of the pre-Mongol era and later period. Modern researchers, both in their works on the history of Central Asia and in the few works dealing directly with the Qara-Khitay state, call the Qara-Khitay ruler uniformly — “Gur Khan”. However, there is no such unanimity regarding the title of the Qara-Khitay ruler in the composition of Muslim historical and geographical works, especially pre-Mongol time. Moreover, up to a certain point, the title “Gur Khan” does not occur in them at all, and Muslim authors use other markers to denote the Qara-Khitay ruler. In this regard, it was interesting to trace the evolution of this title as part of Muslim sources not only of the 12th — early 13th centuries, but also as part of later monuments. All this will make it possible to understand more clearly not only how the authors of different times titled the Qara-Khitay ruler, but also what they understood by this or that title, how well they imagined its origin, etc. This will also allow us to highlight a certain tradition of describing the history of the Qara-Khitay statehood as part of Muslim historical writings and identify the key monuments in this case, as well as highlight certain controversial subjects related to the titulature of the Qara-Khitay rulers.

Download PDF Download JATS
  1. Agadzhanov S. G. Essays on the history of the Oghuz and the Turkmens of Central Asia IX–XIII centuries. Ashkhabad: Ylym, 1969 (in Russian).
  2. Akhinzhanov S. M. Qipchaks in the history of medieval Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata: Gylym, 1995 (in Russian).
  3. Bartol’d V. V. Turkestan during the Mongol invasion. Part one. Texts. SaintPétersbour: Tipografija Imperatorskoj Akademii nauk, 1898 (in Arabic and Persian).
  4. Bartol’d V. V. An essay on the history of Semirechye. In: Bartold V. V. Essays. Vol. II, pt. 1: General works on the history of Central Asia. Moscow: Nauka, 1963(а), pp. 23–109 (in Russian).
  5. Bartol’d V. V. Turkestan during the Mongol invasion. In: Bartol’d V. V. Works. Vol. I: Turkestan during the Mongol invasion. Moscow: Nauka, 1963(б) (in Russian).
  6. Bartol’d V. V. Gur Khan. In: Bartol’d V. V. Essays. Vol. 5: Works on the history and philology of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples. Moscow: Nauka, 1968(а), с. 528 (in Russian).
  7. Bartol’d V. V. Qara-Khitays. In: Bartol’d V. V. Essays. Vol. 5: Works on the history and philology of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples. Moscow: Nauka, 1968(б), pp. 542–546 (in Russian).
  8. Buniyatov Z. M. The Khorezm state of Anushteginids 1097– 1231. Moscow: Nauka, 1986 (in Russian).
  9. Ibn al-Athir. “Al-Kamil fi-t-Tarikh” “Full arch of history” Selected passages. Transl. by P. G. Bulgakov and Sh. S. Kamoliddin. Tashkent: Uzbekistan, 2006 (in Russian).
  10. Materials on the history of the Kyrgyz and Kyrgyzstan. Ed. by V. A. Romodin. Issue 1. Moscow: GRVL, 1973 (in Russian).
  11. Muhammad al-Hamawi. at-Tarih al-Mansuri (“Chronicle of Mansur”). Ed. by P. A. Griaznevich. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 1960 (in Arabic).
  12. Muhammad ibn Najib Bakran. Jahan-nameh (“The Book of the World”). Ed., introd. and indexes of Yu. E. Borshchevsky. Moscow: GRVL, 1960 (in Persian).
  13. al-Nasawi, Shihab al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad. Sirat as-Sultan Jalal ad-Din Mankburny: (Biography of Sultan Jalal ad-Din Mankburny). Critical. text, transl. from Arabic, preface, comment., notes and indexes by Z. M. Buniyatov. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 1996 (in Russian).
  14. Pikov G. G. Western Khitans. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo Novosibirsk. un-ta, 1989 (in Russian).
  15. Rashid ad-Din. Collection of chronicles. In 3 vols. Transl. by A. K. Arends, Yu. P. Verkhovsky, O. I. Smirnova, L. A. Khetagurova. Vol. I, book 2. Moscow – Leningrad: Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1952 (in Russian).
  16. Samarkandi Nizami Aruzi. A collection of rarities, or four conversations. Transl. by S. I. Baevsky, Z. N. Vorozheikina. Moscow: GRVL, 1963 (in Russian).
  17. Timohin D. M. Review of Arab-Persian sources of the pre-Mongol period on the history of the Kara-Kitai state: features of structure and content. Vostok (Oriens). Afro-Asian Societies: History and Modernity. 2021. No. 6, pp. 250–261 (in Russian).
  18. Timokhin D. M. Once again about the Qara-Khitay in pre-Mongol Muslim sources on the example of an anonymous Persian work of 1133. Mongol Studies. 2022;14(2):371–382 (in Russian).
  19. Sadr ad-Din ‘Ali al-Husajni. Ahbar ad-Daulat as-Seldzhukijja (Zubdat at-tavarih fi ahbar al-umara va-l-muluk as-seldzhukijja) (“Reports on the Seljuk state”. “The cream of Chronicles, telling about the Seljuk emirs, and the lords”). Transl. by Z. M. Buniyatov. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 1980 (in Russian).
  20. Biran M. The Qara Khitai Empire in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  21. The Cambridge History of Iran. Ed. by J. A. Boyle. Vol. 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.
  22. The Chahár maqála (“Four discourses”) of Nidhámí-i-'Arúdí-i-Samarqandí. Transl. by E. G. Browne. London: Luzac & Co., 1900.
  23. Collections scientifiques de l’Institut des Langues Orientales du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères. Vol. III. Les manuscrits persans de l'Institut des langues orientales. Décrits par le Baron Victor Rosen. Saint-Pétersbourg: Imp. de l’Académie impériale des sciences, 1886.
  24. Doerfer G. Tü rkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen. Bd. 3. Tü rkische Elemente im Neupersischen. Wieshaden: F. Steiner, 1967.
  25. Golden P. B. An introduction to the history of the Turkic peoples: Ethnogenesis and state-formation in medieval and early modern Eurasia and the Middle East. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1992.
  26. Histoire des seldjoucides de l’Iraq par al-Bondari d’apres Imad ad-din al-Katib al-Isfahani. Recueil de textes relatifs a l’histoire des seldjoucides. Ed. by M. Th. Houtsma. Vol. II. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1889. (In Arabic)
  27. History of Damascus 363–555 a. h. by Ibn al-Qalanisy, ed. by H. F. Amedroz. Leyden: Brill, 1908 (in Arabic).
  28. Ibn-el-Athiri Chronicon quod perfectissimum inscribitur. Vol. 11. Annos H. 527– 583. Ed. by С. J. Tornberg. Leiden and Uppsala: E. J. Brill, 1876. (in Arabic).
  29. Juwaini. The History of the World-conqueror. Transl. by J. A. Boyle. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997.
  30. Kermani Nasir ad-Din Munshi. Simt al-‘ulii li’l-hadra al-‘ulya. Ed. I. ‘Abbas. Tehran: Sherkat Sahami Chap, 1328/1949 (in Persian).
  31. Marvazi Sharaf al-Zaman Tahir. On China, the Turcs and India, arabic text with an English translation commentary by V. Minorsky. London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1942.
  32. Menges K. H. Der titel روک ناخ der Qara-Qytaj. Ural-altaische Jahrbücher. Bd. XXIV. 1952. H. 3–4, SS. 84–88.
  33. Menges K. H. Titles and organizational terms of the Qyṭ ań (Liao) and QaraQytaj (Ś i-Liao). Rocznik Orientalistyczny. 1953. T. XVII, pp. 68–79.
  34. Al-Muntazim fi Tarikh al-maluk wa al-umam al ibn Jawzi. Beyrouth: Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah, 1992. J. 1–19 (in Arabic).
  35. Muʻīn al-Dīn Naṭanzī. Extraits du Muntakhab al-Tavarikh-i Mu’ini (Anonyme d’Iskandar). Ed. by J. Aubin. Tehran, 1336/1957 (in Persian).
  36. Nerchakhy Mohammed. Description topographique et historique de Boukhara, publ. par Ch. Schefer. Paris: Leroux, 1892 (in Persian).
  37. Nishaburi, Zahir ad-Din. Salguk-name. Tehran: Chaphaney-e Havar Tehran, 1953 (in Persian).
  38. Ravandi Mohammad. Rahat as-sudur va ayat as-sorur, ed. by Mohammad Iqbal. Leiden – London: Luzac & Co., 1921 (in Persian).
  39. Rybatzki V. Die Personennamen und Titel der mittelmongolischen Dokumente: Eine lexikalische Untersuchung. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino Oy, 2006.
  40. T̤abakā t-i-Nāṣ irī: A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia, Including Hindustan; from A. H. 194 (810 A. D.) to A. H. 658 (1260 A. D.) and the Irruption of the Infidel Mughals into Islam. By Minhāj-ud-dīn, Abū-’Umar-i- ‘Usmān; transl. from original Persian manuscripts by H. G. Raverty. Vol. I–II. London: Gilbert & Rivington, 1881.
  41. The Ta’rikh-i-Guzida or “Select History” of Ḥamdu’llāh Mustawfi-i-Qazwini: compiled in A. H. 730 (A. D. 1330) and now reproduced in facsimile from a manuscript dated A. H. 857 (A. D. 1453). Vol. 1. Ed. by Edward Granville Browne. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1910.
  42. Ta’ríkh-i-Jahán-gushá of ‘Alá’u d-Dín ‘Aṭa Malik-i Juwayní (composed in A. H. 658 = A. D. 1260). Ed. by M. Qazvī nī . Leyden – London: E. J. Brill; Luzac & Co., 1916 (in Persian).
Благодарности: The research was carried out at the expense of the grant of the Russian Science Foundation No. 23-28-00736 “Desht-i Qipchak and adjacent settled agricultural territories of the 10th–13th centuries: the expirience of studying the interaction of cultures
For citations: Тимохин Д.М. Титулатура кара-китайских правителей в мусульманских источниках XII–XV веков. Ориенталистика. 2023; т. 6, 3-4: 477-492