The Role of Pilgrimage Missions in Zunghar-Qing Relations in Tibet and Kokunor

русская версия

Affiliation: Калмыцкий государственный университет им. Б. Б. Городовикова
Sections HISTORY OF THE EAST. General history
Pages 208 - 224

The article is interested from the point of view of the research at the interaction between the nomadic state and a settled agricultural empire after the long years of military confrontation, with the use of religious mechanisms in the regions, which in the recent past had been the subject of a dispute. The article presents the stages of the formation and existence of the phenomenon of pilgrimage missions “Mangja” by Oirat nomads to Tibet and Kokunor, and its impact on the political and economic sphere of the region. The author shows the approximate composition of the participants and the route of these missions. Satisfying the spiritual needs of pilgrimage groups, a trading activities and the collection of information were integral companions of the Zunghar “Mangja” missions to Qing Tibet and Kokunor, which also stimulated the Qing authorities to respond enthusiastically to these events and develop relevant institutions in this domains. The article shows how this phenomenon was seen by the Zunghars and by the Qing authorities and what components it consisted of. With the ϐinal victory over the nomadic state in the middle of the 18th century, the Qing Empire interrupted the practice of this kind in international contact. 

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Благодарности: This article was prepared with the support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (No. 075-03-2022-119/1 “Buddhism and global challenges of the modern world”).
For citations: Кукеев Д.Г. Роль паломнических миссий в джунгаро-цинских отношениях в Тибете и Кукуноре. Ориенталистика. 2023; т. 6, 2: 208-224